Linux Runlevel Command

You can still use the runlevel command to show the current run level. Servers with a GUI and desktop Unix systems start runlevel 5. Most desktop linux distributions boot into runlevel 5, which starts up the Graphical Login Prompt. This runlevel is generally used on by workstations. Runlevel 4 is typically unused. These are pseudo-states, which can be defined to run certain commands but which do not cause the current run level to change. A runlevel is one of the modes that a Unix-based operating system will run in. d scripts through command line. Introduction. Runlevels are numbered from zero to six. The following example shows that xinetd is enabled for both run level 3 and 5. Conclusion. To get back to the multiuser GUI mode, you can use the init 5 command. d apache2 defaults 90 update-rc. Run Level 4 is user-defined; Run Level 5 is a multi-user GUI mode default for most of the user systems. target is equivalent to run level 3 and the graphical. /bin – Contains the executable programs that are part of the Linux operating system. The multi-user. If you are familiar with Windows, it may be helpful to think of the runlevel system as being similar to the choice between "Safe Mode", "Safe Mode with Networking", "Command Prompt" etc. Rather they are Linux/Unix concept which every linux system uses. Here I have tried changing the "DEFAULT_RUNLEVEL" to 3 or anything else and it makes no difference (the original value was 2 which didn't make much sense either). chkconfig is an admin command. The runlevel command is used to find the current and previous runlevels on Unix-like operating systems. This year’s FOSDEM 2020 will be held on February 1st and 2nd. Office tools that work with Windows, Mac & UNIX. Return to your default runlevel by using the exit command. target is similar to the well known run level 3, which is essentially console only with networking enabled. Preceded by: Basic Terminal (CLI) MS-DOS. How-To: Managing services with update-rc. In Debian based systems this is the single-user / minimal mode. When booting into an X Windows login, the default boot level is 5. d directory tree. The number or character on the left if the previous run level (which is N which means there was no previous run level since it was a "new" install). You can change default run level by edit /etc/inittab file. To remove sshd from all runlevels do:. Now restart the NFS service. However, if the default runlevel is 3 and you want to change it to 5, you first need to configure the X Window System in the required way (see Chapter 4. It will simply convert the runlevel to what it deems to be the equivalent in systemd. How-To: Managing services with update-rc. Runlevels are numbered from 0 to 6, with each runlevel offering different services. F7 would take you to graphical mode only if it booted into run level 5 or you have started X using startx command; otherwise, it will just show a blank screen on F7. For example, the following. Home » Articles » Linux » Here. When a Linux system boots, it enters its default runlevel and runs the startup scripts associated with that runlevel. You can also change the current runlevel manually using the the init command. Check startup services in Ubuntu or Debian 1. It is quite helpful if we have to run few console commands instead of using full GUI. Some however, boot to Full multiuser mode (runlevel 3) and may choose to "startx" manually once logged in. Some of the sysVinit commands have been symlinked to their RHEL 7 counterparts, however this will eventually be deprecated in favor of the standard systemd commands in the future. In simple words it is used to list current startup information of services or any particular service, updating runlevel settings of service and adding or removing service from management. When a server is issued a reboot command, it enters runlevel 6. depmod - handle dependency descriptions for loadable kernel modules. In Gentoo, the rc-status command can be used to list the running services. target unit. One can find out what is the runlevel of their system by executing “who -r” based on runlevel the scripts are executed from location /etc/rc. Ubuntu runs in runlevel 3 by default, whereas RedHat and Mandriva use runlevel 5 for graphics, and 3 for console. So, after a little research I discovered that the run levels in Deb/Ub are far different than I'm used to. Runlevels 0, 1, and 6 are reserved. This post will help you to set up the default runlevel in Debian 10 / Debian 9. A runlevel is a preset operating state into which a system can be booted (i. Check runlevel on AIX August 31, 2010 Here is a handy command to see the current run level on AIX: Linux Commands; May 6. Systemd has replaced sysVinit as the default service manager. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. chkconfig command is mainly used to set given service or daemon run level. Init run levels Shutdown Managing processes Work for the system admin How long does it take? Performance Load Can I do anything as a user? Scheduling processes Use that idle time! The sleep command The at command Cron and crontab Summary Exercises General Booting, init etc. Universal Command Guide is a large book which covers several of the OSs in this table. Runlevel 0 is used to halt the system, runlevel 6 is used to reboot the system, and runlevel 1 is used to get the system. useful kali linux commands for various purposes Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing. Run levels are the old-school unix method of managing what services the host is running at various times and for various purposes. The following command line cheat sheet for Unix, Linux, and BSD systems is from my new book Introduction to the Command Line (available now a Amazon. In HPUX highest run levels like 5 and 6 are kept reserved for future purposes. Hello Linux-Fanatics, in this post we will be process for changing default runlevel in Centos\RHEL 6 & 7. The startx command is a front-end to the xinit command, which launches the X server (Xorg) and connects X client applications to it. If you boot runlevel 3 either manually or reboot command or shutdown -r (pick one). The new system runlevel is given in the RUNLEVEL argument, and the previous system runlevel in the PREVLEVEL argument (which may be empty). Run Level 4 is user-defined; Run Level 5 is a multi-user GUI mode default for most of the user systems. Below is a quick and dirty sample Init script to help you get on your way. - Comes From. Most Linux shell commands, as well as many utilities and programs written for Linux, have a number of command-line options (aka "switches") that allow you to customize the behavior of the command or utility. action is how the command should be treated when it is at the required runlevel you can find more information on this later in this article. The default runlevels shipped with void are default and single: The single runlevel is meant to be used as rescue or single user target and it will only start sulogin(8) by default. This event includes the new runlevel in the RUNLEVEL environment variable, as well as the previous runlevel (obtained from their own environment or from /var/run/utmp) in the PREVLEVEL variable. To configure it to boot to runlevel 5, you will need to open /etc/inittab and edit it accordingly. Init (short for initialization) is the program on Unix and Unix-like systems that spawns all other processes. Most users boot to runlevel 5 with X11 support and a GUI login. You can use the telinit command to switch to another runlevel. init is responsible for launching the other processes on the system. Terminal is the interface through which you type cryptic Linux commands, but is terminal just a window with command prompt… + Read More Using WPA_Supplicant to Connect to WPA2 Wi-fi from Terminal on Ubuntu 16. Unless the user specifies another value as a kernel boot parameter, the system will attempt to enter (start) the default runlevel. Tech Tip: Change runlevels without rebooting. Many Linux commands, such as cat, cp, ls, more, and tar, are locate in /bin /boot – Contains the Linux kernel and other files needed by LILO and GRUB boot managers. This means the software is always the latest stable versions available from the openSUSE Project. How to find LDAP server details in your domain Hello People We all have LDAP configured in Infastructure, however not aware on which all servers it is, what is the port number (Default is port 389, avoid changing this port number, as it will break connections). A change of runlevel is signalled by the runlevel(7) event, generated by either the telinit(8) or shutdown(8) tools. The Linux Console. , started up). systemctl status default. At what runlevel does a Linux system have no daemons active in memory, allowing it to be safely powered off? 0. For example: # runlevel N 5 The output above indicates that the current runlevel is 5 and there was no previous runlevel. There are a number of systemctl commands that provide this information. chkconfig - updates and queries runlevel information for system services chkconfig provides a simple command-line tool for maintaining the /etc/rc[0-6]. Ex: suse10tst: # runlevel N 5 We can see the default runlevel in /etc/inittab. There are 7 runlevels on a Linux Server, starting from runlevel 0 to runlevel 6 (0 – 6). If you wish to stop a script in the /etc/init. Learn to control your Linux runlevels using systemd. The /etc/inittab file is a plain text file that can be opened with your favorite text editor. who -r command: # who -r run-level 3 Aug 27 10:12 last=5; Using runlevel command which produces essentially the same result but in a form of just two numbers. You should be back in the GUI mode: Here is a brief description of the runlevels in Linux you can reach using the init command. 'chkconfig' command allows you to configure that newly added service to start after every system start up automatically. by Aaron To change the system to runlevel 5, type the command below. There is this weird dichotomy in Linux-land, where Linux and FOSS are always pushing ahead and progressing, and people are always complaining about it. But the system is running in graphic mode (I am using ubuntu 12. In this A to Z list of Linux commands, we have tried to include as. I get terminal and now i can use it for programming in CLI(command line interface) mode. yppasswdd 2. This also handles the -b, emergency, -s and single kernel command-line options as well as specifying an alternate runlevel on the kernel command-line. N 2 which means that the current runlevel is 2. View Hardware Information Using the Command Line on Linux 17th July 2016 17,318k It is always good idea for every system administrator to view the hardware information of your Linux machine. Re: An introduction to run-levels Posted by Anonymous (58. sysvinit script will search for any System V init scripts you have in /etc/rc. Some of the sysVinit commands have been symlinked to their RHEL 7 counterparts, however this will eventually be deprecated in favor of the standard systemd commands in the future. Add "--debug to the kernel command-line via the grub menu. Versions Earlier than Windows 10 Version 1903. I’ve used ‘touch’ command but it is saying ‘permission denied’ even though im the superuser (root). It runs as a daemon and typically has PID 1. If you are in a graphical mode (like KDE or GNOME) press Ctrl-Alt-F2 (all at the same time) to switch to virtual terminal 2; when you're done use: Ctrl+Alt+F7 to switch back to the graphical desktop. /var/log/wtmp. Ubuntu also has an extra rcX. The Linux scripts are much easier to comprehend at first glance, but the concepts are the same- run the K stuff as you leave, the S as you enter (Linux doesn't have the P type for parallel execution- at least not yet!). Use the following sections to understand services and scripts used for starting and stopping the TrueSight Operations Management components. runlevel Command: runlevel prints the previous and current runlevel of the system. After the Linux kernel has booted, the /sbin/init program reads the /etc/inittab file to determine the behavior for each runlevel. Prerequisite: Run Levels in Linux chkconfig command is used to list all available services and view or update their run level settings. exe) is a command-line tool for managing Linux distributions running on the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). For most Linux distros, bash (bourne again shell) is the default command-line interface or shell used to execute these commands. You should be back in the GUI mode: Here is a brief description of the runlevels in Linux you can reach using the init command. STOP: For Older Version of OS ONLY 🙂 If you are running older version of Redhat, Ubuntu, CentOS version then you will need to have script in this format. uname is the Linux command to get system information. The old method of editing /etc/inittab to change system runlevel does not work anymore. Its primary role is to create processes from a script stored in the file /etc/inittab. Office tools that work with Windows, Mac & UNIX. The runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. The system can be booted into only one runlevel at a time. Changing runlevel. 5 | 8 Chapter 4. Open-source Linux is a popular alternative to Microsoft Windows, and if you choose to use this low-cost or free operating system, you need to know some basic Linux commands to configure, operate, and interact with your system smoothly. This post introduces a “manual” way to change the boot levels. Ultimate, most comprehensive guide to the Linux operating system for Windows users, newbies and fresh converts, including Linux history, purpose, major differences between Windows and Linux, Linux architecture, Linux distributions overview, Linux distribution components, desktop environments - KDE, Gnome, Unity, Cinnamon and others, Linux package managers - APT, YUM, Zypper and others, Linux. Changing the current runlevel use the following command to change the current runlevel init Changing the default runlevel use any text editor to open the file /etc/inittab. Runlevel and description of each runlevel is given below:. The runlevel command is intended for administrators only, so is in the sbin directory which is not on the normal user's path. Which command below can be used to start, stop, or. d scripts through command line. Select a target Target Purpose graphical. This post will help you to set up the default runlevel in Debian 10 / Debian 9. These commands require superuser privileges. Proceed with caution as you'll be editing a system file. runlevel - output previous and current runlevel | linux commands examples - Thousands of examples to help you to the Force of the Command Line. The Linux scripts are much easier to comprehend at first glance, but the concepts are the same- run the K stuff as you leave, the S as you enter (Linux doesn't have the P type for parallel execution- at least not yet!). The following command line cheat sheet for Unix, Linux, and BSD systems is from my new book Introduction to the Command Line (available now a Amazon. Thanks | The UNIX and Linux Forums. chkconfig is a command for checking and updating runlevel information for system services. Systemd has replaced sysVinit as the default service manager in RHEL 7. Here I have tried changing the "DEFAULT_RUNLEVEL" to 3 or anything else and it makes no difference (the original value was 2 which didn't make much sense either). From Wikiversity Linux and the BSDs are definitely Unix-like though neither one is compliant with the above-mentioned "official. Symantec helps consumers and organizations secure and manage their information-driven world. I’ve used ‘touch’ command but it is saying ‘permission denied’ even though im the superuser (root). Writing commands might seem scary for a beginner, but you will soon get the hang of it. This shows the current runlevel is 3 and the last runlevel was “single user mode”. No matter what, my machine boots fully and when I check the runlevel command, I see "N 5" as the result every time. Do the below steps to find the current runlevel of a Linux System. Course Description: Open Cloud Technology Fundamentals is designed for IT professionals who are new to Linux, Cloud and require core Linux skills and Open Source Solutions. Run Level 6 is used to reboot the system; List Run Levels. We will see the list of run levels and their offerings in the following article. Once the boot runlevel has succeeded, the init process goes on by executing the command for the specified runlevel. The actual runlevel can be changed withinit. If you were too used to Backtrack Linux and want to revert your Kali Linux Login to classic Backtrack command line login, then you’re not alone. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. You can also change the current runlevel manually using the the init command. One can find out what is the runlevel of their system by executing “who -r” based on runlevel the scripts are executed from location /etc/rc. Runlevel 4: unused Runlevel 5: Multi user mode with Graphical User Interface Runlevel 6: Reboot System. The files below define the different runlevels in Slackware Linux. Runlevel 3: It means system is in multiple users, Command line mode. This article covers basic Linux run levels and boot, reboot and shutdown operations, with specific reference to the information needed for the RHCSA EX200 and RHCE EX300 certification exams. The rc-status command has several useful command line options. Help Commands man - Online manual whatis - Displays manual descriptions File and Directory Commands ls - Lists directory contents pwd - Prints the current directory cd - Change directories mv. SysVinit V/s systemd runlevels. Runlevel can be used in rc scripts as a substitute for the System-V who -r command. As an example, after adding a new record to a named (8) database, the daemon can be told to reload its configuration files with the following command: # /etc/rc. target multiple user, GUI and text. quota, edquota, quotaon, quotaoff,. by Aaron To change the system to runlevel 5, type the command below. It runs in a variety of POSIX environments such as Linux, Android, and FreeBSD, although many of the tools it provides are designed to work with interfaces provided by the Linux kernel. This … Continue reading "Linux change the runlevel for a server without rebooting". In simple words it is used to list current startup information of services or any particular service, updating runlevel settings of service and adding or removing service from management. Add a space and then the runlevel to the end of the list of boot options (for example, press space then 3 to select runlevel 3). For instance, if you want to start a service at runlevel 3 and 5, enter the following command: [[email protected] ~]# chkconfig --level 35 rsyslog on. The basic initrd image is a compressed cpio archive of files in the root filesystem. For most Linux distros, bash (bourne again shell) is the default command-line interface or shell used to execute these commands. The runlevel command is used to find the current and previous runlevels on Unix-like operating systems. The default runlevels shipped with void are default and single: The single runlevel is meant to be used as rescue or single user target and it will only start sulogin(8) by default. A runlevel is a preset operating state into which a system can be booted (i. Open Cloud Technology Fundamentals is designed for IT professionals who are new to Linux, Cloud and require core Linux skills and Open Source Solutions. How do I change the runlevel?. It is a common practice in other Linux distributions to use run level 3 for a text console login and run level 5 for a graphical login. org systemd 234 TELINIT(8). Unlike other commands we have seen so far, the init command will not broadcast any message about system halt. You can enter the ethtool commands in /etc/rc. Change Default runlevel. Linux systems I've seen recently use /etc/rc. 'chkconfig' command allows you to configure that newly added service to start after every system start up automatically. In this guide, you will find the most important Linux commands, to use the terminal like a pro. The default run level is defined in /etc/inittab file. Step 4: Restart the system. I/O redirection Simple redirections What are standard. As an example, your machine will restart if you set the runlevel to 6. The runlevel is a software configuration of the system which allows only a selected group of processes to exist. Runlevely 2, 3 a 5 identicky nastavené pro konzoli (se všemi službami aktivními), runlevel 4 přidává X Window System. To manage the systemd runlevels we. Getting a GUI Console. Debian distribution has it runlevel 2-5 dedicated to full multi-user with graphical managers and console login whereas Redhat/Fedora has two separate runlevels for each mode. Using chattr it is possible to make a file immutable. As an alternative, some Windows 10 installations provide access to a command line SSH client via “PowerShell” from the Windows Start Menu. An A-Z Index of the Linux command line: bash + utilities. Changing the current runlevel use the following command to change the current runlevel init Changing the default runlevel use any text editor to open the file /etc/inittab. How do I change the runlevel?. x Linux kernel is technically the initramfs (initial RAM filesystem) image. You can add PostgreSQL to the set of services provided at a particular runlevel by adding a startup script and a shutdown script to the runlevel's directory. Current Runlevel. What's a Runlevel? When a Linux system boots, it launches the init processes. target (runlevel 5). uname is the Linux command to get system information. The interface comes in two different flavors, one that simply. The runlevel command is used to find the current and previous runlevels on Unix-like operating systems. Runlevel and description of each runlevel is given below:. system run level control file. A service normally knows in which runlevel it. d Actually contains all of the scripts. The process will be started once when the runlevel is entered, and init will wait for its completion. In simple words it is used to list current startup information of services or any particular service, updating runlevel settings of service and adding or removing service from management. In Linux, runlevels define how the system is started. systemctl status default. Before we get into learning more useful systemd commands, let's take a little trip down memory lane. The Linux scripts are much easier to comprehend at first glance, but the concepts are the same- run the K stuff as you leave, the S as you enter (Linux doesn't have the P type for parallel execution- at least not yet!). The output of the runlevel command will indicate your previous and current runlevel separated by a single space. Understanding the Linux boot and startup processes is important to being able to both configure Linux and to resolving startup issues. The new system runlevel is given in the RUNLEVEL argument, and the previous system runlevel in the PREVLEVEL argument (which may be empty). chkconfig command is mainly used to set given service or daemon run level. However, if the default runlevel is 3 and you want to change it to 5, you first need to configure the X Window System in the required way (see Chapter 4. to the rc6. Runlevel 5 typically enters a full graphical mode, while runlevel 3 only offers a text-based shell. In a typical linux boot process there are mainly 6 stages , they are: 1. The default run level is defined in /etc/inittab file. There is actually a reboot command as well which is used for legacy purposes. Run a specified distribution of WSL, can be used to send commands to a specific distribution without having to change your default. Conclusion. When a server is issued a reboot command, it enters runlevel 6. Other systems might first run through (a) lower run level(s) and execute all the scripts in there before arriving at the final run level and executing. (Optional) To run the remote commands in the managed machine's current run level or in the run level, select the appropriate run level option, click OK, and click Next. When compare RHEL 6 and RHEL 7, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 is a Linux-based operating system from Red Hat designed for businesses. This article covers basic Linux run levels and boot, reboot and shutdown operations, with specific reference to the information needed for the RHCSA EX200 and RHCE EX300 certification exams. For example, when you start your Linux computer, the kernel starts init, and init executes the startup scripts to initialize your hardware, bring up networking, start your graphical desktop. Type the following and press the Enter key to get the details of runlevel: # /sbin/runlevel N 3 If there is no recorded previous runlevel the command will show 'N' and then the current runlevel. different, and you need to understand how to work with it. If the runlevel field is empty, this is interpreted as 0123456789; therefore, the init command enters run level 9. ) To start Linux with a different Run Level than the default, add the Run Level digit to the end of the kernel options line during boot, e. From GUI to Text: Running Linux without a GUI Page 8 Figure 5. Logically speaking, it's a more obvious command to use to reboot your computer, but most people actually use the following command to reboot their computer:. On Linux, init runs only "/etc/rc. If you're using Debian or its various offshoots, the default runlevel will be 2. Debian distribution has it runlevel 2-5 dedicated to full multi-user with graphical managers and console login whereas Redhat/Fedora has two separate runlevels for each mode. Whole process is actually add one additional boot parameter. Runlevel 1 is also known as runlevel s. This course also focuses on essential administration tasks that will be encountered in the workplace, working with commands, establishing network connectivity, managing physical storage, and performing basic security. Return to your default runlevel by using the exit command. BusyBox is a software suite that provides several Unix utilities in a single executable file. The whole idea of command line login was to get a fast and quick access to a system where you can perform some task as quickly as possible and waste time and resources on Window or Desktop Manager. erfac" ????. I had did some updates and then my steam games wouldnt play and then it wont even boot. It starts the unit specified on the command line and its dependencies and stop all others. You can enter the ethtool commands in /etc/rc. A service normally knows in which runlevel it. A quicker way of restarting the network interface would be to use command lines. For example, runlevel 5 is graphical mode, where runlevel 3 is text-only mode. init can be in one of eight run levels, 0-6 and S or s (S and s are identical). This is just like run level 0 except a reboot is issued at the end of the sequence instead of a power off. Add "systemd. Runlevels 0, 1, and 6 are reserved. Prerequisite: Run Levels in Linux chkconfig command is used to list all available services and view or update their run level settings. , core of the operati. Run Level 4 is user-defined; Run Level 5 is a multi-user GUI mode default for most of the user systems. d/rc and call that single script with the argument for the desired new run level. Windows uses a command shell and each version of Windows has a single command interpreter with dos-like commands, recently there is the addition of the optional PowerShell that uses more Unix-like commands. openSUSE Tumbleweed is a rolling-release. By default your linux system will boot in either runlevel 3 or 5. - About showmount : To show mount information for an NFS server. This runlevel is generally used on by workstations. At the command prompt, type runlevel and press Enter. Runlevel is nothing but a process which is Responsible for how the Linux system will Start or Halt/Shutdown. Shutdown and reboot from the command line. You can also change the current runlevel manually using the the init command. local (or your distribution's equivalent) where commands are run after the current runlevel completes, but this isn't ideal. Basically each runlevel is given a subdirectory for init scripts, whereas BSD style gives one init script to each runlevel. You can also edit a line in /boot/grub/grub. different, and you need to understand how to work with it. Below mentioned are the different runlevels of a Linux system in which a linux system can be operated. Run levels are stores inside the /etc and named with rc0. Normally by default installation, this would take your to GNOME or KDE linux environment. This actually signals "init" process to change runlevel. The output of the runlevel command will indicate your previous and current runlevel separated by a single space. For example, to boot Linux in single-user mode (runlevel 1), edit the line with the kernel command by adding 1 at the end. This post introduces a “manual” way to change the boot levels. Vector Linux offers a faster init system: It does not kill the services only to start them again in the next runlevel. In a typical linux boot process there are mainly 6 stages , they are: 1. For stable and secure purpose-built appliances, devices, and systems. who -r shows what is the runlevel of the system cat /etc/. This is quick guide howto change runlevel on GRUB2. If the service has an initialization (init) script installed, you can use the service command to. Processes spawned by init for each of these run levels are defined in /etc/inittab. Check runlevel on AIX August 31, 2010 Here is a handy command to see the current run level on AIX: Linux Commands; May 6. There are a few commands that allow you to maniuplate the kernel. To configure your Linux system to automatically start the Samba service upon boot up, the above command will need to be inserted in the /etc/rc. With 'chkconfig' you can display the list of services those are configured for startup at a particular run-level. So, after a little research I discovered that the run levels in Deb/Ub are far different than I'm used to. Once the boot runlevel has succeeded, the init process goes on by executing the command for the specified runlevel. Most desktop linux distributions boot into runlevel 5, which starts up the Graphical Login Prompt. 6 Installing and Using the Yum Security Plugin 1. To manage the systemd runlevels we. The runlevel is changed by having a privileged user run telinit, which sends appropriate signals to init, telling it which runlevel to change to. Init scripts. #startxfce4. uname is the Linux command to get system information. It is generally said that the "system" is in a particular run-level. During the boot process for old linux systems the init command opens the /etc/inittab file to decide what "runlevel" the system should be booted to. Method 1 Check Runlevel: [[email protected] ~]# systemctl get-default multi-user. If the first output character is ‘N’, the runlevel has not been changed since the system was booted. If you want to access to a G How to configure your CentOS machine to auto-start to the installed GUI - Graphical Environment Interface (GNOME, KDE or others) right after the boot-up sequence. who Command: Print information about users who are currently logged in. You can enter the ethtool commands in /etc/rc. Current run level in HPUX can be identified using the below command :. In Red Hat Linux, the default boot level is 3.